Research Cited


  1. Suarez-Arroyo IJ et al. Anti-tumor effects of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) in inflammatory breast cancer in in vivo and in vitro models. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57431.
  2. Jiang J et al. Ganoderma lucidum suppresses growth of breast cancer cells through the inhibition of Akt/NF-kappaB signaling. Nutr Cancer.2004;49(2):209-16.
  3. Kashimoto N et al. Inhibitory effect of a water-soluble extract from the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Rei-shi) mycelia on the development of pulmonary adenocarcinoma induced by N-nitrosobis (2-hydroxypropyl) amine in Wistar rats. Oncol Rep.2006 Dec;16(6):1181-7.
  4. Weng CJ et al. Inhibitory effects of ganoderma lucidum on tumorigenesis and metastasis of human hepatoma cells in cells and animal models. J Agric Food Chem.2009 Jun 10;57(11):5049-57.
  5. Aimei Li et al. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth by downregulating regulatory T cells accumulation and function by inducing microRNA-125b. J Transl Med. 2015; 13: 100.
  6. Lu QY et al. Ganoderma lucidum extracts inhibit growth and induce actin polymerization in bladder cancer cells in vitro. Cancer Lett.2004 Dec 8;216(1):9-20.
  7. Müller CI et al. Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells. Leuk2006 Jul;30(7):841-8.
  8. Hsieh TC,Wu JM. Suppression of proliferation and oxidative stress by extracts of Ganoderma lucidum in the ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3. Int J Mol Med. 2011 Dec;28(6):1065-9.
  9. Liu J et al. Anti-androgen effects of extracts and compounds from Ganoderma lucidum. Chem Biodivers.2009 Feb;6(2):231-43.
  10. Dan X et al. A Ribonuclease Isolated from Wild Ganoderma Lucidum Suppressed Autophagy and Triggered Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer Cells. Front Pharmacol.2016 Jul 25;7:217.
  11. Chang YH et al. Ganoderma lucidum extracts inhibited leukemia WEHI-3 cells in BALB/c mice and promoted an immune response in vivo. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem.2009 Dec;73(12):2589-94.
  12. Sa-Ard, P et al. Antioxidant, antibacterial and DNA protective activities of protein extracts from Ganoderma lucidum. J Food Sci Technol.2015 May;52(5)
  13. Dudhgaonkar S et al. Suppression of the inflammatory response by triterpenes isolated from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Int Immunopharmacol.2009 Oct;9(11):1272-80.
  14. Smina TP et al. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes prevent γ-radiation induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice in vivo. Redox Rep. 2016 Nov;21(6):254-61.
  15. Zhuang SR et al. Effect of citronellol and the Chinese medical herb complex on cellular immunity of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy/radiotherapy. Phytother Res. 2009 Jun;23(6):785-90
  16. Wang DH et al. Antitumor activity of extracts of Ganoderma lucidum and their protective effects on damaged HL-7702 cells induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi.2006 Oct;31(19):1618-22.
  17. Hijikata Y, Yamada S, Yasuhara A. Herbal mixtures containing the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum improve recovery time in patients with herpes genitalis and labialis. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Nov;13(9):985-7.
  18. Hijikata Y, Yasuhara A, Sahashi Y. Effect of an herbal formula containing Ganoderma lucidum on reduction of herpes zoster pain: a pilot clinical trial. Am J Chin Med. 2005;33(4):517-23.
  19. Min BS et al. Triterpenes from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum and their inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo).1998 Oct;46(10):1607-12.
  20. Liu C et al. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Triterpenoid in Human Crohn's Disease Associated with Downregulation of NF-κB Signaling. Inflamm Bowel Dis.2015 Aug;21(8):1918-25.
  21. Cai Z et al. Anti-inflammatory activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) and San-Miao-San supplements in MRL/lpr mice for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. Chin Med.2016 Apr 29;11:23
  22. Saylam Kurtipek G et al. Resolution of Cutaneous Sarcoidosis Following Topical Application of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Mushroom). Dermatol Ther (Heidelb).2016 Mar;6(1):105-9.
  23. Ho YW et al. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide peptide reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines in activated rheumatoid synovial fibroblast. Mol Cell Biochem.2007 Jul;301(1-2):173-9.

Lion’s Mane

  1. Mori K et al. Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res.2009 Mar;23(3):367-72.
  2. Mori K et al. Effects of Hericium erinaceus on amyloid β(25-35) peptide-induced learning and memory deficits in mice. Biomed Res.2011 Feb;32(1):67-72.
  3. Wong KH et al. Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers., a medicinal mushroom, activates peripheral nerve regeneration. Chin J Integr Med.2016 Oct;22(10):759-67.
  4. Zhang CC et al. Chemical constituents from Hericium erinaceus and their ability to stimulate NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth on PC12 cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett.2015 Nov 15;25(22):5078-82.
  5. Mori K et al. Nerve growth factor-inducing activity of Hericium erinaceus in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Biol Pharm Bull.2008 Sep;31(9):1727-32.
  6. Kolotushkina EV et al. The influence of Hericium erinaceus extract on myelination process in vitro. Fiziol Zh.2003;49(1):38-45.
  7. Park YS et al. Effect of an exo-polysaccharide from the culture broth of Hericium erinaceus on enhancement of growth and differentiation of rat adrenal nerve cells. Cytotechnology.2002 Sep;39(3):155-62.
  8. Kim SP et al. Composition and mechanism of antitumor effects of Hericium erinaceus mushroom extracts in tumor-bearing mice. J Agric Food Chem.2011 Sep 28;59(18):9861-9.
  9. Lee JS,Hong EK. Hericium erinaceus enhances doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Cancer Lett. 2010 Nov 28;297(2):144-54.
  10. Wang JC et al. Antimutagenicity of extracts of Hericium erinaceus. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2001 May;17(5):230-8.
  11. Kim SP et al. Mechanism of Hericium erinaceus (Yamabushitake) mushroom-induced apoptosis of U937 human monocytic leukemia cells. Food Funct. 2011 Jun;2(6):348-56.
  12. Mori K et al. Effects of Hericium erinaceus on amyloid β(25-35) peptide-induced learning and memory deficits in mice. Biomed Res.2011 Feb;32(1):67-72.
  13. Friedman M. Chemistry, Nutrition, and Health-Promoting Properties of Hericium erinaceus (Lion's Mane) Mushroom Fruiting Bodies and Mycelia and Their Bioactive Compounds. J Agric Food Chem.2015 Aug 19;63(32):7108-23.
  14. Abdulla MA et al. Potential activity of aqueous extract of culinary-medicinal Lion's Mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) in accelerating wound healing in rats. Int J Med Mushrooms.2011;13(1):33-9.
  15. Mori K et al. Inhibitory effect of hericenone B from Hericium erinaceus on collagen-induced platelet aggregation.2010 Dec 1;17(14):1082-5.
  16. Hiwatashi K et al. Yamabushitake mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) improved lipid metabolism in mice fed a high-fat diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem.2010;74(7):1447-51.
  17. Mori K et al. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lion's Mane Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) in a Coculture System of 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and RAW264 Macrophages. Int J Med Mushrooms.2015;17(7):609-18.
  18. Kim YO et al. Hericium erinaceus suppresses LPS-induced pro-inflammation gene activation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2012 Jun;34(3):504-12.
  19. Kenmoku H et al. Erinacine Q, a new erinacine from Hericium erinaceum, and its biosynthetic route to erinacine C in the basidiomycete. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem.2002 Mar;66(3):571-5.
  20. Friedman M. Chemistry, Nutrition, and Health-Promoting Properties of Hericium erinaceus (Lion's Mane) Mushroom Fruiting Bodies and Mycelia and Their Bioactive Compounds. J Agric Food Chem.2015 Aug 19;63(32):7108-23.
  21. Nagano M et al. Reduction of depression and anxiety by 4 weeks Hericium erinaceus intake. Biomed Res.2010 Aug;31(4):231-7.


  1. Ning X et al. Inhibitory effects of a polysaccharide extract from the Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (higher Basidiomycetes), on the proliferation of human neurogliocytoma cells. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2014;16(1):29-36.
  2. Fan L et al. Antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of water-soluble polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus. Carbohydr Polym.2012 Oct 1;90(2):870-4.
  3. Chung MJ et al. Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells. Nutr Res Pract. 2010 Jun;4(3):177-82.
  4. Arata S et al. Continuous intake of the Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) aqueous extract suppresses cancer progression and maintains body temperature in mice. Heliyon. 2016 May 12;2(5):e00111.
  5. Lee HS et al. Ethanol extract of Innotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) induces G1 cell cycle arrest in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Nutr Res Pract.2015 Apr;9(2):111-6.
  6. Zhao F et al. Chemical constituents from Inonotus obliquus and their antitumor activities. J Nat Med.2016 Oct;70(4):721-30.
  7. Niu H et al. Investigation of three lignin complexes with antioxidant and immunological capacities from Inonotus obliquus. Int J Biol Macromol.2016 May;86:587-93.
  8. Lee KR et al. Polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture broth of Inonotus obliquus suppresses invasion of B16-F10 melanoma cells via AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2016 Nov;14(5):4429-4435.
  9. Lee KR et al. Inonotus obliquus-derived polysaccharide inhibits the migration and invasion of human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells via suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Int J Oncol.2014 Dec;45(6):2533-40.
  10. Yue Z et al. Effect of Inonotus Obliquus Polysaccharides on physical fatigue in mice. J Tradit Chin Med. 2015 Aug;35(4):468-72.
  11. Kim YR. Immunomodulatory Activity of the Water Extract from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus. Mycobiology. 2005 Sep;33(3):158-62.
  12. Zhao LW et al. Prevention of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides for high power microwave radiation induced testicular injury in rats: an experimental research. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi.2014 Jul;34(7):864-8.
  13. Yun JS et al. Inonotus obliquus protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Mol Cells.2011 May;31(5):423-9.
  14. Chou YJ et al. Renal Protective Effects of Low Molecular Weight of Inonotus obliquus Polysaccharide (LIOP) on HFD/STZ-Induced Nephropathy in Mice. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Sep 13;17(9).
  15. Xu HY et al. Beneficial effects of the ethanol extract from the dry matter of a culture broth of Inonotus obliquus in submerged culture on the antioxidant defence system and regeneration of pancreatic beta-cells in experimental diabetes in mice. Nat Prod Res.2010 Apr;24(6):542-53.
  16. Diao BZ et al. Protective Effect of Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Symptoms and Their Potential Mechanisms in Rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.2014;2014:841496. doi: 10.1155/2014/841496. Epub 2014 Jun 30.
  17. Hong KB et al. Hepatoprotective Activity of Water Extracts from Chaga Medicinal Mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Liver Injury in Primary Cultured Rat Hepatocytes. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2015;17(11):1069-76.
  18. Shibnev VA et al. Antiviral activity of Inonotus obliquus fungus extract towards infection caused by hepatitis C virus in cell cultures. Bull Exp Biol Med.2011 Sep;151(5):612-4.
  19. Polkovnikova MV et al. [A study of the antiherpetic activity of the chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extracts in the Vero cells infected with the herpes simplex virus]. Vopr Virusol. 2014 Mar-Apr;59(2):45-8.
  20. Mishra SK et al. Orally administered aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus ameliorates acute inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Sep 28;143(2):524-32.
  21. Kim YR. Immunomodulatory Activity of the Water Extract from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus. Mycobiology. 2005 Sep;33(3):158-62.

Turkey Tail

  1. Ganeshpurkar A, Rai G, Jain AP. Medicinal mushrooms: Towards a new horizon. Pharmacogn Rev. 2010 Jul-Dec; 4(8): 127–135
  1. Habibi E et al. Mycochemical Investigation of the Turkey Tail Medicinal Mushroom Trametes versicolor (Higher Basidiomycetes): A Potential Application of the Isolated Compounds in Documented Pharmacological Studies. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2015;17(3):255-65.
  2. Guggenheim AG et al. Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2014 Feb;13(1):32-44.
  3. Hsieh TC et al. Regulation of cell cycle transition and induction of apoptosis in HL-60 leukemia cells by the combination of Coriolus versicolor and Ganoderma lucidum. Int J Mol Med. 2013 Jul;32(1):251-7.
  4. Sekhon BK et al. PSP activates monocytes in resting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: immunomodulatory implications for cancer treatment. Food Chem.2013 Jun 15;138(4):2201-9.
  5. Ramberg JE et al. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature. Nutr J.2010 Nov 18;9:54.
  6. Standish LJ et al. Trametes versicolor mushroom immune therapy in breast cancer. J Soc Integr Oncol.2008 Summer;6(3):122-8.
  7. Fisher M,Yang LX.  Anticancer effects and mechanisms of polysaccharide-K (PSK): implications of cancer immunotherapy. Anticancer Res. 2002 May-Jun;22(3):1737-54.
  8. Oyetayo VO et al. Assessment of anti-inflammatory, lipid peroxidation and acute toxicity of extracts obtained from wild higher basidiomycetes mushrooms collected from Akure (southwest Nigeria). Int J Med Mushrooms.2012;14(6):575-80.
  9. Knežević A et al. Antigenotoxic Effect ofTrametes  Extracts against DNA Damage on Human Peripheral White Blood Cells. ScientificWorldJournal. 2015;2015:146378.
  10. Krupodorova T et al. Antiviral activity of Basidiomycete mycelia against influenza type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 in cell culture. Virol Sin. 2014 Oct;29(5):284-90.
  11. Donatini B. Control of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) by medicinal mushrooms, Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma lucidum: a preliminary clinical trial. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2014;16(5):497-8.
  12. Pallav K et al. Effects of polysaccharopeptide from Trametes versicolor and amoxicillin on the gut microbiome of healthy volunteers: a randomized clinical trial. Gut Microbes.2014 Jul 1;5(4):458-67.
  13. Yu ZT et al. Trametes versicolor extract modifies human fecal microbiota composition in vitro. Plant Foods Hum Nutr.2013 Jun;68(2):107-12.
  14. Yang Y et al. Protein-bound polysaccharide-K induces IL-1β via TLR2 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Innate Immun.2014 Nov;20(8):857-66.
  15. Li F et al. Purification and characterization of a novel immunomodulatory protein from the medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor. Sci China Life Sci.2011 Apr;54(4):379-85.
  16. Chen J et al. A study on the antioxidant effect of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide in rat brain tissues. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med.2013 Oct 3;10(6):481-4.
  17. Chen CH et al. Polysaccharides of Trametes versicolor Improve Bone Properties in Diabetic Rats. J Agric Food Chem.2015 Oct 28;63(42):9232-8.
  18. Erjavec I et al. Mushroom Extracts Decrease Bone Resorption and Improve Bone Formation. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2016;18(7):559-69.


  1. Li CY et al. Two-sided effect of Cordyceps sinensis on dendritic cells in different physiological stages. J Leukoc Biol.2009 Jun;85(6):987-95.
  2. Kuo CF et al. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium protects mice from group A streptococcal infection. J Med Microbiol. 2005 Aug;54(Pt 8):795-802.
  3. Xun C et al. Radiation mitigation effect of cultured mushroom fungus Hirsutella Sinensis (CorImmune) isolated from a Chinese/Tibetan herbal preparation -Cordyceps Sinensis. Int J Radiat Biol. 2008 Feb;84(2):139-49.
  4. Liu WC et al. Protection against radiation-induced bone marrow and intestinal injuries by Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese herbal medicine. Radiat Res.2006 Dec;166(6):900-7.
  5. Guan YJ,Hu Z, Hou M. [Effect of Cordyceps sinesis on T-lymphocyte subsets in chronic renal failure]. [Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi.1992 Jun;12(6):338-9, 323.
  6. Du F et al. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney. Am J Transl Res. 2015 May 15;7(5):932-40.
  7. Wang SJ et al. [Effects of cordyceps sinensi on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice]. [Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007 Dec;32(24):2623-7.
  8. Lin XX et al. [Effects of fermented Cordyceps powder on pulmonary function in sensitized guinea pigs and airway inflammation in sensitized rats]. [Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi.2001 Sep;26(9):622-5.
  9. Ko WS et al. Compound Cordyceps TCM-700C exhibits potent hepatoprotective capability in animal model. 2010 Jan;81(1):1-7.
  10. Wang XB et al. [Intervening and therapeutic effect of cordyceps mycelia extract on liver cirrhosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine in rats]. [Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi.2008 Jul;28(7):617-22.
  11. Wang XB et al. [Cordyceps mycelia extract decreases portal hypertension in rats with dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver cirrhosis: a study on its histological basis]. [Article in Chinese] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao.2008 Nov;6(11):1136-44.
  12. Koh JH et al. Antifatigue and antistress effect of the hot-water fraction from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull.2003 May;26(5):691-4.
  13. Wu R et al. Effects of fermented Cordyceps sinensis on oxidative stress in doxorubicin treated rats. Pharmacogn Mag. 2015 Oct-Dec;11(44):724-31.
  14. Ji DB et al. Antiaging effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract. Phytother Res. 2009 Jan;23(1):116-22.
  15. Lu L. [Study on effect of Cordyceps sinensis and artemisinin in preventing recurrence of lupus nephritis]. [Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2002 Mar;22(3):169-71.
  16. Chen JL et al. Immunological alterations in lupus-prone autoimmune (NZB/NZW) F1 mice by mycelia Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis-induced redistributions of peripheral mononuclear T lymphocytes. Clin Exp Med. 2009 Dec;9(4):277-84.
  17. Gu GS et al. Cordyceps sinensis preserves intestinal mucosal barrier and may be an adjunct therapy in endotoxin-induced sepsis rat model: a pilot study. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 May 15;8(5):7333-41.
  18. Shin S et al. Cordycepin Suppresses Expression of Diabetes Regulating Genes by Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-induced Inflammation in Macrophages. Immune Netw.2009 Jun;9(3):98-105.
  19. Koh JH et al. Hypocholesterolemic effect of hot-water extract from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull.2003 Jan;26(1):84-7.
  20. Chang Y et al. Effect of Cordyceps militaris supplementation on sperm production, sperm motility and hormones in Sprague-Dawley rats. Am J Chin Med.2008;36(5):849-59.